Saturday, July 21, 2007

(in work) Impart Spin with Mass Driver

For space habitat to impact Earth like gravity to its human occupants, it should be shaped like a cylinder and should spin about its longitudinal axis. The resultant centrifugal force would force occupants against the inside of the outer cylindrical wall (or hull to use nautical terms). With centain combinations of angular velocity and radius (of circular end planes, known as "top and bottom" of cylinder), g-force accleration is achieved. While the principle of conservation of angular momemtum may maintain required spin once "g" is achieved, moving a huge habitat from zero spin to g-force spin will take a significant amount of power.

Significant power is available from high speed mass drivers (see links at tail of this blentry). While using mass drivers to impart spin to a habitat is a new concept (at least, I couldn't find it documented anywhere), it does have certain tradeoffs.

Mass limitations

Eventually upgrade to accelerated particles, because mass availability will have certain limitations which conversion to plasma then acceleration will considerably ameliorate.
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To impart spin to the cylindrical habitats, I envisage high speed mass ejecting from outer surface of cylindrical hull such that mass particles travel tangentially to the habitat's circular outer surface. This would be even more effective if there were two such forces being applied at 180 degrees from each other on same plane (two forces applying forces opposite to each other on opposite sides of a circular object, known as "couple". Of course, this concept could be expanded with more tangential forces being applied at more equiangular locations.)

BACKGROUND MATERIAL from the web. Following sources discuss straight line mass drivers.

Space Studies Institute
Advantages of mass drivers: Rugged design that uses off-the-shelf parts
Variable specific impulse
Performance degrades gracefully if individual units are faulty
Can use any mass as fuel (that is, as reaction mass)
Very high efficiency in conversion of electrical energy to kinetic energy
Mass drivers have benefited from the advances in solid-state switching and in high-performance ultracapacitors
Mass drivers do not require a nuclear power source, a solar power source similar to that used on the international space station will be sufficient.




++A launch capsule accelerates to high speed in a vacuum tube via electromagnetic levitation.
++Goes into orbit by an array of lasers (vs. legacy rocket which needs to carry its fuel).
++Escape V of Earth = 11.4kps
++Electric locomotive. supertrain. maglev. superconducting electro-magnets. Super-conductors levitate because they repel lines of magnetic force.
++Payload capsule rides magnetic force wave in superconducting track ahead of the capsule attract it, magnets behind repel it.
++Electromagnetic accelerator. "Mass drivers" in an evacuated tube.
++High-speed airlocks. allow a permanent vacuum. launch tube 125km. 10gs.
++Cargo capsules - colonizing space requires huge tones of mundane materials , immune to acceleration 45km. Linear induction motors. More voltage to handle higher magnetic thrust. 50000 m/s
++A kilogram of payload to orbit for less than a $1 of electricity.
++Ring capacitor w/ a volume of 182,000 m**3 required to store the 300,000 kwh needed to launch a 14 ton capsule. 50,000 kwh capacitor needs superconducting cable just over 6' in diameter.
++From the launch tube, elevation of 6000 meters, 5 km/s. Launch capsule will ride an array of laser beams.
++Beam of light and a block of ice. Ice block, and water superheated to 10,000 C flashes to steam. Superheated steam expands at 10.000 m/s.
++Rocket thrust, divided by the mass of fuel- specific impulse Isp.
++Laser induced specific impulses at high as 2,000 seconds.
++Readily available , environmentally safe, and low molecular weight. Water, in the form of ice, meets all these criteria.
++4ton slab of ice, 40cm (16") thick.
++at 40% efficiency, laser will produce 100N of thrust / megawatt of laser power.


SPACE.com -- Insurance Plans for Humanity's Survival
Mass driver work reactivated. Asteroids are worrisome intruders in near-Earth space, as well as vast storehouses of diverse materials, said Lee Valentine, ...www.space.com/scienceastronomy/planetearth/mass_drivers_010510.html - 46k - Jul 19, 2007 - Cached - Similar pages

PERMANENT - Transportation - Mass Drivers
The mass driver will eventually become the main means of supplying material from the Moon to industry in orbital space, though not in the early years of ...www.permanent.com/t-massdr.htm - 39k - Cached - Similar pages

mass driver
Prototype mass drivers have existed since 1975. Most were constructed by the Space Studies Institute in order to prove their properties and practicality. ...www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/M/mass_driver.html - 13k - Cached - Similar pages

Mass Drivers and Electromagnetic Launch Systems
NASA explores electromagnetic space launches · Mass Drivers Cost Far Too Much · Sandia, Lockheed Martin develop electromagnetic missile launcher for naval ...www.cyberpursuits.com/space/engineering/massdrivers.asp - 14k - Cached - Similar pages

The Space Settlement Art Gallery
It can be utilized as a reaction engine which can use literally anything for fuel (even ground-up chunks of Space Shuttle External Tanks). The mass-driver ...members.aol.com/oscarcombs/gallery.htm - 15k - Cached - Similar pages

Mass driver - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The first mass driver known in print was actually called the "electric gun" and described in detail as a way to launch vehicles into outer space from the ...en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mass_driver - 32k - Cached - Similar pages

Mass Drivers Assuming the problems with the catcher can be worked out, the small mass driver may have an important place in addition to a large system. ...www.spacecolonization.com/massdrivers.htm - 7k - Cached - Similar pages Moving Materials into Space : Mass Drivers

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